“. . . according to the Yoga Sutra (3.1), the term [Bandha] refers to the ‘binding’ of consciousness to a particular object or locus (desha), which is the very essence of concentration.”
Georg Feuerstein

Thursday, February 10, 2011

How to Draw the Knees to the Floor in Baddha Konasana

In Yoga Mat Companion Book 2 (Anatomy for Hip Openers and Forward Bends), I mention an old Chinese proverb that says, “If you are unable to attain a goal, do not abandon the goal. Rather, change your strategy to reach it.” A specific example of this would be working to bring the knees closer to the floor in Baddha Konasana (Bound Angle Pose). Say you have tried pressing on the knees, putting weights on them, etc., and you can’t get the results you want. Perhaps it’s time for a change of strategy . . .

I teach the following technique in my workshops, both to illustrate how spinal cord reflex arcs function and to help practitioners bring their knees closer to the floor.

Analyze Your Pose

We’ll use the Bandha Yoga Codex to analyze the asana. This is a simple process that you can apply to any pose to improve flexibility, strength, and precision—no matter what style of yoga you practice. Let’s focus on the lower extremities in Bound Angle Pose. Begin by looking at the general form of the pose. The hips flex, abduct, and externally rotate and the knees flex. Next, look at the muscles that engage to produce this position. The hip abductors (and their synergist, the sartorius) draw the knees apart and towards the floor. The external rotators turn the thighs out, and the hamstrings flex the knees. I usually start my work on a pose by gently engaging these muscles—I call them the synergists of the asana. This stimulates the brain centers associated with the muscles and joints and creates an imprint on the homunculus. It essentially says to the brain, “Baddha Konasana.” This is an example of the mind—body connection in yoga. Next, determine which muscles are stretching. These will be the antagonists of the muscles that produce the form of the asana. Click here to better understand agonist/antagonist relationships. The muscles that stretch in a pose are the same ones that can limit openings. In the case of Baddha Konasana, tight adductors of the hips (muscles that act to draw the knees together) can restrict lowering the knees towards the floor.

Once you have identified the muscle group that is stretching, apply your knowledge of physiology to create length in those muscles. Below is the technique for using PNF to stretch the adductors in Baddha Konasana. This works nicely to bring the knees closer to the floor (some students say it’s like magic).

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation in Baddhakonasana
Engage the biceps to constrain the thighs.
Engage the adductors for PNF.


Apply Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

Take the general form of the pose. Grasp the feet with the hands and bend the elbows to place them in the crease between the lower legs and thighs. Activate the biceps and brachialis muscles to flex the elbows a bit further. This will bring the knees a little lower and stretch the adductors out to their “set length.”

Keep the biceps and brachialis engaged and then contract the adductor group. The cue for this is to attempt to lift the knees and draw them towards the midline. The elbows will prevent the thighs from moving, but activating the adductors will stimulate the Golgi tendon organs at their muscle-tendon junction. Hold this contraction for five to six smooth deep breaths, using a maximum of about 20 percent of your force. Then relax the adductors and gently activate the tensor fascia lata and gluteus medius (muscles that abduct the knees towards the floor). A cue for this action is to press the soles of the feet together.

baddhakonasana - bound angle pose
Engage the TFL and gluteus medius to abduct
the hips and stretch the adductors.
Engage the hamstrings to flex the knees.
Lastly, engage the hamstrings by squeezing the lower legs into the thighs and bringing the heels closer to the pelvis. This helps to maintain the integrity of the knee joint

Repeat this entire process once more before coming out of the pose. Don't worry if your thighs do not come all the way down to the floor. Rather, look for improvement in the pose and then work on it again in subsequent practice sessions.

Balance Opposites

Now take Dandasana. This balances the stretch of the adductors by engaging them to bring the legs together—just as Hatha Yoga balances the Sun and Moon. Don’t worry if you can’t get your knees down immediately. Rather, look for progress. Remember to allow 48 hours for muscle recovery and then go through this sequence again.

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Have a great weekend, and let us know how this technique works for you. Learn more about the Bandha Yoga Codex and how to refine hip openers and forward bends in Yoga Mat Companion Book 2.

Namasté

Ray and Chris

8 comments:

  1. Bless you for the amazing information you share.
    Fatima
    Setubal, Portugal

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  2. I am currently training to become an RYT. I'm studying the The Key Muscles of Yoga book, and I love this blog! In fact, I've linked it to my own blog. Thanks for sharing your expertise!

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  3. great clarity & usefulness, as usual

    really also liking the # and types of links you've included, this adds another level of helpfulness

    thanks!

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  4. Thank you! for sharing you knowledge. FANTASTIC!
    Bless you!

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  5. Hello Ray,

    I would like to ask the following... how does it work?

    TFL and gluteus medius (muscles that abduct the knees towards the floor you say) should be contracted to help dandasana; but then TFL and gluteus medius also rotate the femur inwards, how can it be helping in this way for the knee?

    Thank you in advance!
    Emanuela

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  6. Hi Emanuela,

    Thanks for your question. It's true that the TFL and glut medius (anterior fibers) internally rotate the femurs, in addition to their primary function of abduction of the hip. In Baddha konasana, I use them primarily for the abduction component, but the key for this is to take the knees slightly diagonally back and down (instead of straight down towards the floor). This adds a bit of the internal rotational component and aids to protect the knees as a hinge and also refines the pose (combine with engaging the hamstrings). Please let me know if this helps with your question!

    Namaste'

    Ray

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  7. Thanks Fatima, Julie and Adan! Ray and Chris

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  8. Ray

    In your recent blog(protecting your knee in pigeon pose)
    you teach us to active outer muscle of legs for opening inner joint space and stretch internal rotator to protect the knee joint
    Here you teach to active TFL and Glu.medius can protect the knee joint?
    I am confused about these two condition? Would you please give me some hint?

    thanks

    ReplyDelete